Just In Time / Douki Seisan sequencing


Introduction

The sequencing of units is fundamental in a large number of productive systems oriented towards the product in which production and assembly lines are present. Problems related to sequencing are very diverse: some may be oriented towards obtaining an optimal sequence of products in several stages with parallel processors, others aimed at achieving sequences for a group of serial workstations, favouring regularity in production within the framework of the JIT / Douki Seisan philosophy.

In mixed-model manufacturing lines, very frequent in JIT and Douki Seisan (DS), it is possible to handle several variants of one or more products. This flexibility conditions the order in which the units have to be treated in order to, on one hand, achieve a drastic reduction in intermediate stocks and, on the other hand, take as much advantage as possible of the time available for manufacturing.
















In these settings, we can choose two basic categories of objectives (Boysen et al. (2009)):

  • A. Linked to work overload or lost work: As great a reduction as possible of work overload that may appear due to the heterogeneity of processing times in the operations implicit in a production program with mixed products.

  • B. Linked to JIT /DS: As great a reduction as possible of the levels of stocks in the system through limitation of the variation of the rates of production and consumption in the manufacturing and supply chain; ideally, these rates should be maintained constant.

As far as category A of objectives goes, besides the relative focus on maximising the total work completed, there is also the possibility of modulating the excess effort that must be applied over time on some operations.

For category B of objectives, the literature provides us with several means of efficiency that depend on the company’s policy.

Under the perspective offered to us by problems, a possible classification is one that allows sequence problems to be grouped into three types:

  • 1. Mixed-model sequencing: Sequences that imply completing the maximum work required by the production program.

  • 2. Car sequencing problem: Sequences conditioned by limitation on the frequency with which some special options may appear.

  • 3. Level scheduling: Sequences that imply production and consumption rates of materials that are as regular as possible over time.

Overload, or excess effort, is a measurement, in units of time, of the work that cannot be completed at the standard rhythm of activity established, within the time granted to the stations (cycle). This overload may appear when the processing time of a unit in a station is greater than the cycle time, although there may be a certain amount of play associated with the extended cycle, which is called the length of station or time window.

Faced with a foreseeable overload in a station, at least three types of measures can be taken:

  • I. Stop the line and complete the work pending with some reinforcement.

  • II. Let the unit pass and finish the pending work in a final line at a later time. This unfinished work or extra work has several names: work overload, pending work, or utility work requiring the co-operation of other operators.

  • III. Increase productive activity above the standard, through the assistance of reinforcement operators or previously-programmed robotised systems.


References

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Work in Progress

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  • Submitted, mes y año